Posted by Chris A. Hehn on April 22, 2000 at 07:31:40:
In Reply to: Re: Immigrants in America/Philadelphia posted by Victoria on April 17, 2000 at 11:24:40:
Krefeld in those days (1630) was NOT Germany. Dutch [D[e]ut[s]ch] means Deutsch or German anyway. It was a part of Gelderland, the Dutch province, with Geldern (today in Germany on the Dutch border) being the capital.
Also it was a part of the Calvinist Duchy of Berg, which again was a part of Lower Bugundry.
On the home page
you can see the churches: the one with the tower at the end of the church is catholic, and the one with tower in the middle in Calvinist.
In 1705 the Prussinas, being initially also Calvinists snatched Geldern, and Berg.
However before and during the 30th year war, which resulted in the persecution of the protestants: the Spanish governors of the Netherlands got a papal edict, in which he told the Spaniards to kill all 5 Million Dutch citizens:
, including those of Gelderland and Berg of course. Here the split between the Habsburg Netherlands (Belgium) and the United Netherlands (The Netherlands) occured. The Catholic Habsburgs in Vienna, Austria, acting through the tougher Spaniards could regain control of Brugges, Brussels, Dunkerk and Ghent in Flanders, and 'weed out' the Protestants, who had to move North to Belgium. They had tight links with Scotland, unlike Ireland a Protestant place since John Knox a friend of Heresbach (see beneath) when also to Switzerland.
It was Gottfried Neander (the Neanderthal man is named after the valley (Tal or Thal; in English: DALE i.e. the Yorkshire Dales) named after Neander) and Konrad Heresbach (1496 - 1576) the friends of Erasmus, who brought the Calvinst Idea into Gelderland and Cleve-Berg. Heresback was born in Medamana-Mettmann, and went to learn about the Calvinst faith in Basle, Switzerland
He was born in Schöller, today a suburb of Wuppertal, and in an area of intense open cast limestone mining. Here the oldest Protestant Church of the Duchy of Berg is still standing:
The Neandervalley that used to be characterised by bizarre rock formations and deep canyons was named after the Protestant vicar and church hymn composer Joachim Neander, who found much inspiration for his songs in this unusual landscape.
Crefeld was in those days a wealthy merchant city engaged in the manufacturing and dying of linen and silk for shipment to central Europe, and imported by the Dutch merchants..
Well, just forget about Luther etc., the first 'Germans' in America, where affiliates of the Dutch, who founded New York as Neiw Amsterdam, and than exchnged the American colony for Banda Islands (Spice Islands), a part of the Indonesian Archipellago, because they thought there is more Nutmeg and more sun than in America after the Anglo-Dutch war.
The Dutch Nation was actually born in Orange, Southern France
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